Diamond Information

The 4C's - Your guide to buying diamonds

Many people are confused about how diamonds are priced.  The best explanation is that asking for the price of a diamond is like asking for the price of a house.  A real estate agent can't quote you a price for a house without knowing it's size, condition, location, etc.  This process is the same one used when buying a diamond.  A diamond's beauty, rarity and price depend on the interplay of all the 4C's - Cut, Clarity, Carat and Colour.

The 4C's are used throughout the world to classify the rarity of diamonds.  Diamonds with the combination of the highest 4C ratings are more rare and consequently more expensive.  No one C is more important than another in terms of beauty and it is important to note that each of the 4C's will not diminish in value over time.

Once you have established those 4C characteristics that are most important to you, we can then begin to show you various options and prices.



Refers to the weight of a diamond.

Carat is often confused with size even though it is actually a measure of weight.  One carat is equivalent to 200 milligrams.  One carat can also be divided into 100 "points".  A 0.75 carat diamond is the same as a 75-points or 3/4 carat diamond.

A 1-carat diamond costs exactly twice the price of a half-carat diamond, right?  Wrong.  Since larger diamonds are found less frequently in nature, which places them at the rarest level of the Diamond Quality Pyramid, a 1-carat diamond will cost more than twice a 1/2-carat diamond (assuming colour, clarity and cut remain constant).

Cut and mounting can make a diamond appear larger (or smaller) than its actual weight.  We can help you to find the right diamond and setting to optimise the beauty of your stone.


Refers to the presence of inclusions in a diamond.

Inclusions are natural identifying characteristics such as minerals or fractures, appearing while diamonds are formed in the earth.  They may look like tiny crystals, clouds or feathers.

To view inclusions, jewellers use a magnifying loupe.  This tool allows jewellers to see a diamond at 10 times its actual size so that inclusions are easier to see.  The position of inclusions can affect the value of a diamond.  There are very few flawless diamonds found in nature, thus these diamonds are much more valuable.

Inclusions are ranked on a scale of perfection, known as clarity, which was established be the Gemological Institute of America (GIA).  The clarity scale, ranging from F (Flawless) to I (included), is based on the visibility of inclusions at a magnification of 10 times.

Some inclusions can be hidden by a mounting, thus having little effect on the beauty of a diamond.  An inclusion in the middle or top of the diamond could impart the dispersion of light, sometimes making the diamond less brilliant.

The greater a diamond clarity, the more brilliant, valuable and rare it is and the higher it is on the Diamond Quality Pyramid.



Refers to the degree to which a diamond is colourless.

Diamonds range in colour from icy winter whites to warm summer whites.  Diamonds are graded on a colour scale established by the Gemmological Institute of America (GIA) which ranges from D (colourless) to Z (noticeable colour).

Warmer coloured diamonds (K-Z) are particularly desirable when set in yellow gold.  Icy white whites (D-J) look stunning set in white gold or platinum.

Colour differences are very subtle and it is very difficult to see the difference between, say, an E and an F.  Therefore colours are graded under controlled lighting conditions and are compared to a master set for accuracy.

Truly colourless stones, graded D, treasured for their rarity, are highest in the Diamond Quality Pyramid.  Colour, however, ultimately comes down to personal taste.  We can show you a variety of colour grades next to one another to help you determine your colour preference.



Refers to the angle and proportions of the diamond.

Based on scientific formulas, a well cut diamond will internally reflect light from one mirror like facet to another and disperse and reflect it through the top of the stone.  This results in a display of brilliance and fire, thereby placing well cut diamonds higher in the Diamond Quality Pyramid than deep or shallow cut diamonds.  Diamonds that are cut too deep or too shallow lose or leak light through the side or bottom, resulting in less brilliance and ultimately, value.


Cut also refers to shape, round, square, pear or heart for example.  Since a round is symmetrical and capable of reflecting nearly all the light that enters, it is the most brilliant of all diamond shapes and follows specific proportional guidelines.

Non round cuts, also known as "fancy shapes," are also very popular.